Causal agents of inflorescence rot of Artocarpus heterophyllus and association with Toxoptera aurantii in Nayarit, Mexico.

M. A. Medina-Tiznado1; G. Luna-Esquivel1, 2; J. Cambero-Campos1, 2; L. G. Ramírez-Guerrero1, 2; C. Rios-Velasco3

1. Maestria en Ciencias Biológico Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Unidad Académica de Agricultura, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Unidad Académica de Agricultura, Mexico , 2. Profesor-Investigador, Carretera Tepic-Compostela Km. 9. C.P. 63780, Xalisco, Nayarit, México. Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Unidad Académica de Agricultura, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Unidad Académica de Agricultura,

<postal-code>63780</postal-code>
<city>Xalisco</city>
<state>Nayarit</state>
, Mexico , 3. Profesor-Investigador, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C. Unidad Cuauhtémoc, Av. Río Conchos S/N parque industrial. C.P. 31570. Cd. Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, México., Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., Unidad Cuauhtémoc,
<city>Cd. Cuauhtémoc</city>
<state>Chihuahua</state>
, Mexico

Correspondence: *. Corresponding Author: Luna Esquivel, Gregorio. Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Unidad Académica de Agricultura, Km 9 carretera Tepic-Compostela, C. P. 63780 Xalisco, Nayarit, México. E-mail: E-mail:


Abstract

In Mexico, Nayarit is the main state of production of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) and recently the crop has been affected by decay of inflorescences without so far determining the causal agent. The objective of this work was to identify the cause of the jackfruit inflorescence rot in Nayarit and the association of Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii. Symptomatic inflorescences were collected with wet, dry rot and specimens of aphids associated with inflorescences with rot and mycelium. The samples were collected in jackfruit orchards of the municipalities of San Blas and Compostela, Nayarit, Mexico. Three hundred dissections of disease progression zones were processed from 250 inflorescences and 40 dissections of 20 specimens of aphids. Six fungi of inflorescence and one of aphids were isolated; five were inoculated at a concentration of 1*106 per mL and two with segments of PDA with five days old mycelium. The inoculation was done with and without wound in epidermis of apparently healthy inflorescences and in laboratory conditions. The seven fungi were able to reproduce the symptoms of rot from the 1st to the 5th day post-inoculation (dpi). By means of morphological and molecular characters, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Lasiodiplodia theobromae were identified as causing the rot of female inflorescences of jackfruit and F. solani, A. flavus, R. stolonifer, L. theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella clavata in male inflorescences in Nayarit, Mexico. Likewise, it was also confirmed that Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii is a vector of R. stolonifer.

Received: 2018 January 30; Accepted: 2018 May 2

revbio. 2020 Mar 23; 5(spe1): e438
doi: 10.15741/revbio.05.nesp.e438

Keywords: Key words: Causal agents, morphological characters, pathogenicity tests, jackfruit.

Introduction

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam,) is a fruit tree native to India (APAARI, 2012) that was introduced in Mexico and is mainly cultivated in Nayarit, representing 90 % of the established surface corresponding to 1,130 ha (SIAP, 2016). The success of this fruit lies on the fact it is a fruit tree for exportation, mainly to the United Stated of America; moreover, it’s exportation has displaced mango and banana crops regarding established surface (Luna et al., 2013; SIAP, 2016).

Jackfruit is a dioecious species that produces male and female inflorescences all year long (Haq, 2006), the first ones grow mainly from the stem and short axillary branch and the second ones from shoots and terminal branches. In a study performed in Sri Lanka in jackfruit orchards, an 11.7 % of anomalies in inflorescences was reported, these damages were caused by insects and pathogens that were not identified, which made fecundation and fruit setting impossible (Pushpakumara, 2006).

The male inflorescences of jackfruit in Thailand and India represent rots caused by Rhizopus artocarpi (APAARI, 2012) and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ghosh et al., 2015), however, in Florida, USA, Botrytis and R. artocarpi were reported as the causal agents of rot in both types of inflorescence (Crane & Balerdi, 2000). On the matter, Pushpakumara (2006) in Sri Lanka, reported that the presence of black mold on the surface of male inflorescences before their fall, without determining what the causal agent was. In Bangladesh, the fall of 18.9 % of female flowers damaged by Rhizopus sp. (Ghosh, 1994) was reported. The rots caused by R. artocarpi and R. stoloniger start with humid areas and grayish mycelium, gradually turning black with a dense growth that covers the inflorescence, slowly rotting, mummifying and falling from the tree (Crane & Balerdi, 2000).

In India, during dry periods followed by rainy days, the multiplication of aphids like Greenidea artocarpi Westwood and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is favored, both feed on new shoots and jackfruit leaves covered by black mold caused by R. artocarpi (Haq, 2006; APAARI, 2012). In Nayarit, Mexico, Rodríguez et al. (2017) reported the presence of T. aurantii laying down in male inflorescences of jackfruit, with presence of gray mold, without determining the fungus causing the rot. In citrus fruits, the aphid T. aurantii, is reported as a vector for the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reaching a horizontal dissemination among trees due to the flight pattern in short distances (Silva et al., 2001; Patiño-Arellano et al., 2012).

In orchards of jackfruit in Nayarit, Mexico, the presence of male and female inflorescences with humid and brownish dry rot is evident, these start after floral opening. The symptoms in male inflorescences start with humid area over which grayish mycelium grows, later turning dark-grayish on which the aphids lay; in female inflorescences, dry rots develop and extend as the fruit grows. Due to the limited information available and the absence of researches on the matter, the objective of this study was to morphologically and molecularly identify the causal agents of rot inflorescences of jackfruit and the association of T. aurantii with the rots.

Material and Methods

Sampling site

The samplings were carried out in orchards with ten-year-old trees at the localities of El Llano (21º24’58’’N and 105º11’28’’W, 40 masl) and Las Varas, (21º10’13’’N ad 105º09’36’’W, 24 masl) in the municipalities of San Blas and Compostela, respectively, in the state of Nayarit, Mexico.

Gathering of symptomatic material

A total of 250 inflorescences from commercial orchards were gathered (150 male and 100 female) with symptoms of humid rotting (105 male and 40 female) and dry rotting, (45 male and 60 female) and 20 specimens of brown citrus aphids laying on abundant mycelium in male inflorescences with humid rotting, during the months of May, June, and August, 2016. The biological material (inflorescences and aphids) was recollected into paper bags, then, it was put into dry ice coolers and moved to the lab of Parasitología Agrícola del Centro Multidisciplinario de Investigación Científica (CEMIC 3), of the Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit for the isolation from possible pathogenic microorganisms from the inflorescences and aphids, and for the identification of the brown citrus aphid as a possible vector of fungi causing the rotting of inflorescences of jackfruit.

Isolation of microorganisms

The vegetal tissue (inflorescences) was divided into sections from the zone of advance of the disease (transition zone) of 0.5 cm2, and was disinfected with NaClO at 3 % for 2 minutes, the 20 specimens of aphids were dissected in half and were submerged in ethylic alcohol at 70 % for 2 minutes, later the tissue and the aphids were washed using sterile distilled water in three times for 2 minutes and were placed in sterile wipes gauze to dry at room temperature, then they were cultured (150 tissue cuts of male inflorescences, 150 of female ones and 40 of aphids) in petri dishes with culture mean potato dextrose agar (PDA-Bioxon®) and were incubated at 28 °C ± 2 in a bacteriological incubator for 7 d (Novatech®) (Agrios, 2005).

Obtaining of monosporic cultures

The fungi that grew, were isolated and purified in PDA based on the technique described by Manandhar et al., (1995) for the obtaining of monosporic cultures, for their posterior morphological identification at gender level, by means of taxonomic keys of Barnett & Hunter (2006) and pathogenicity tests.

Pathogenicity tests

Preparation of inoculum

Cultures with five days of isolation were used. Ten ml of sterile distilled water were added to each petri dish; the mycelium was mixed using a sterile stick of 6.5 cm and the mixture was recovered in a test tube. Approximately 10 µL were taken from the suspensión (with the help of a three-milliliter hypodermic needle) to perform the counting in a hemocytometer (Paul Maurenfield®), thus adjusting the suspension of spores of 1 x 106 by mL (Rodríguez et al., 2002). The isolated cultures of fungi that did not develop enough conidia, the inoculum was segments of PDA of 0.2 cm2 with six-day-old mycelium.

Inoculum and re-isolation

The isolated fungi of rots (humid and dry) from inflorescences (male and female) and from aphids, were inoculated in inflorescences with a healthy look from the same type from which they were isolated. Each isolated culture was inoculated by means of two procedures: with wound and with no wound, in 10 inflorescences for each procedure, plus 10 controls (standard of comparison), where each inflorescence represented one repetition. The inflorescences used had an average size of 9 cm in females and 5 cm in males. After being inoculated, they were put into a sterile transparent plastic box of 26 x 26 cm, containing a sterile humid sanita, and later they were incubated at room temperature (23 °C ± 3) and 74 % of relative humidity. The wound in the inflorescences consisted of 0.5 cm2 with a dissecting knife, in which the suspension of spores of 1 x 106 by mL was placed using a sterile cotton swab. The inflorescences with no wounds were inoculated with the same concentration of spores directly on the epidermis with a sterile cotton swab. Only sterile distilled water was added to the control inflorescences. The fungi with not with not enough spores, were inoculated using segments (explants) of PDA with mycelyum growth of 0.2 cm2.

The inoculated inflorescences were systematically analyzed every 24 hours and the ones showing symptoms of rotting were re-isolated in PDA for their confirmation through their morphological characters (Barnett & Hunter, 206)

Morphological identification

From their growth in PDA, their characters qualitative macroscopic morphological and quantitative, were described. Semi-permanent preparations dyed with lactophenol blue solution (HYCEL®) were made, and were observed under an optical microscope (Nikon Eclipse E400) with a camera integrated. For the determination of the gender of the fungi, the Barnett & Hunter keys were used (2006).

Molecular identification

DNA extraction

This practice was performed from a three-day growth culture in a solid culture mean PDA at 28°C. The mycelium of the fungus was harvested with a sterile plastic spatula, and was placed in a mortar for its maceration 500 µL of reaction damper (Tris-HCI 200 mM, NaCl 250 mM, EDTA 25 mM, SDS 0.5 %, pH 8) hot (70 °C). Afterwards, 500 µL of the reaction damper were added for a better maceration of the mycelium. The macerated mycelium was recovered in a sterile microtube of 1.5 mL and was incubated at 70 °C for 60 minutes in a thermoblock, then 300 µL of phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1), was mixed in a vortexer for 10 minutes and was centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 minutes. The aqueous phase was transferred into a new sterile microtube, 2 µL of RNase (ribonuclease) were added and was left resting at 37°C for 30 minutes, then 300 µL of phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) were added, it was mixed in a vortexer for 5 minutes and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 minutes, and supernatant was recovered and the same volume of chloroform (approximately 400 µL) was added, then mixed by inversion and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 5 minutes, the aqueous phase was transferred into a new sterile tube, to which 500 µL of isopropyl alcohol were added and 1/10 of sodium acetate 3 M pH=5.2, was mixed by inversion, centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 5 minutes and the supernatant was disposed of. The pellet was washed with cold ethanol at 70 % (approximately 400 µL), centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 5 minutes and was finally left to dry, they were resuspended in aliquots of 30-50 µL of distilled purified water and were kept in refrigeration (Ahrens & Seemüller, 1992).

DNA amplification

The obtained DNA was visualized by gel electrophoresis of agarose at 1 % and then it was used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS 4 and 5) from the rDNA (ribosomal DNA), using the universal primers ITS5 (5’-GGAAGTAAAAGTCGTAACAAGG-3’) and ITS4 (5’-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3’) (White et al., 1990). The reaction mixture for PCR was prepared in a final volume of 506 µL, sterile ultrapure water (349.25 µL), damper solution 10X (11 µL), MgCl2 at 2.5 mM (66 μL), dNTPs 10 μL (11 μL), starters ITS4 and ITS5 at 1 μL (11 μL from each one) and Taq polymerase 2.75 μL. The products of PCR were examined by gel electrophoresis in agarose at 1 %. Subsequently, the products were sequenced by Macrogen Company (Rockville, Maryland, USA). The obtained sequences were compared with the data base from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) using the algorithm of BLAST (Altschul et al., 1990), to verify the percentage of identity corresponding to the species analyzed.

Results and Discussion

Out of the 300 fragments of tissue cultivated in PDA with advanced rot in inflorescences, the fungi isolated were: Fusarium solani (3.2 %), Aspergillus niger (4 %), Aspergillus flavus (5.6 %), Rhizopus stolonifer (20 %), Cunninghamella clavata (24 %) and Lasiodiplodia theobromae (43.2 %), which tested positive for the pathogenicity tests, when causing the rotting of the inflorescences from the inoculated area, showing symptoms between the first and fifth day post-inoculation (dpi), reaching total rotting of inflorescences at the fifth and ninth dpi. From the aphid specimens, only R. stolonifer was isolated (100 %).

Fusarium solani, in both types of inflorescences, caused humid rot with pink mycelium (Figure 1 and 2). With the two procedures of inoculation (with and without wound), the symptoms were reproduced on the male inflorescences with wound (Table 1). In jackfruit, the fungus Fusarium spp., has only been reported to affect roots in Florida, USA (Crane & Balerdi, 2000). It is also reported in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucurbita pepo) F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae W. C. Snyder and H. N. Hans Raza 1 and F. solani f. sp cucurbitae L. (García Jiménez et al., 1997;Castroagudin et al., 2009), however, a relation between F. solani e inflorescences of jackfruit, therefore, it is considered the first report of F. solani as pathogenic for the male and female inflorescences of jackfruit in Nayarit, Mexico. In lemon fruits (Citrus limon L. Burm. f.), is reported to F. oxysporum as causal agent of rot (Fogliata et al., 2013), while in flowers in fruits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Sympathy MZ) under greenhouse conditions, F. subglutinans was identified (Utkhede & Mathur, 2003).


[Figure ID: f1] Figure 1.

Symptoms of rot in female inflorescences of jackfruit. A) Control with wound, B) Fusarium solani, C) Control with wound, D) Aspergillus flavus, E) Control with wound, F) Rhizopus stolonifer, G) Control without wound (PDA without mycelium), H) Lasiodiplodia theobromae.



[Figure ID: f2] Figure 2.

Symptoms of rot in male inflorescences in jackfruit. A) Control without wound, B) Fusarium solani, C) Control without wound, D) Aspergillus niger, E) Control with wound, F) Aspergillus flavus, G) Control with wound, H) Rhizopus stolonifer, I) Control without wound (PDA without mycelium), J) Cunninghamella clavata, K) Control with wound (PDA without mycelium), L) Lasiodiplodia theobromae.


Table 1.

Percentage of pathogenicity of fungal isolates when evaluated under laboratory conditions against female and male inflorescences.


Phytopathogenic fungus Inflorescence Type of
inocultation
Pathogenicity tests
(%)
Appearance of
symptoms
(dpi)
Total rot
(dpi)
Fusarium solani Female With wound + (100) 5 9
Without wound - (100) - -
Male With wound + (70) 5 6
Without wound + (50) 5 6
Aspergillus niger Male With wound + (90) 3 7
Without wound + (90) 4 7
Aspergillus flavus Female With wound + (100) 5 7
Without wound - (100) - -
Male With wound + (30) 3 6
Without wound + (50) 4 6
Rhizopus stolonifer Female With wound + (70) 1 6
Without wound - (100) - -
Male With wound + (70) 1 6
Without wound + (60) 3 5
Cunninghamella clavata Male With wound + (100) 2 9
Without wound + (100) 2 9
Lasiodiplodia theobromae Female With wound + (40) 3 6
Without wound + (40) 3 6
Male With wound + (100) 3 6
Without wound + (100) 3 6

TFN1+= Positive to the pathogenicity test.

TFN2-= Negative to the pathogenicity test.

TFN3Dpi = Days post-inoculation.


Aspergillus niger, caused dry and humid rot in a 90 % in male inflorescences tested, over which a softening of the tissue was observed, and humid rot with abundant black sporulation that invaded the entire tissue (Table 1, Figure 2). This species, is a pathogen of economic importance mainly in post-harvest fruit from several fruit trees, which is why it is considered the first time in which it affects male inflorescences of jackfruit in Nayarit, Mexico. In this state, Ragazzo et al. (2011) report it for causing grayish zone over the seed vessel and softening of the tissue in post-harvest fruits of jackfruit. In post-harvest fruits of cherries (Prunus cerasus L.), apple (Malus domestica Borkh) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), this pathogen caused humid areas with dark pulvelurence spores (Latorre et al., 2002;Thomidis & Exadaktylouy, 2012); while in lemons (Citrus limon L.) and pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad), tiny dark-brownish stains developed 7 days after inoculation covering the epidermis (Liaguat et al., 2016), in the same way, the damage of necrotic stains on ginger leaves (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was reported, causing defoliation (Pawar et al., 2008).

Even that there are no reports on the effect of Aspergillus flavus on the crop of jackfruit trees from Nayarit, Mexico, it was found that this fungus caused dry rot in male and female inflorescences over which green-yellowish sporulation developed (Figure 1 and 2; Table 1), which is why it is considered the first time this fungus is reported a pathogen of this species. In the particular case of A. flavus, is not a frequent pathogen of fruits, nevertheless, it has been isolated from sour lemon (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) (Bamba & Sumball, 2005) and from orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), causando rots in post-harvest (Ochoa et al., 2007), in the same manner, it has been detected in almond seeds (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) (Palumbo et al., 2014) and in maize grains in pre-harvest, causing 20 % of infection (Setamou et al., 1997). In addition to being considered the main producer of cancerous aflatoxins in seed all over the world (Marino et al., 2009; Horn et al., 2014).

The symptoms of soft rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in male and female inflorescences, started with a humid stained between the first and fifth day, which later turned brown with white mycelium and black sporulation (Table 1), these symptoms coincide with the ones reported by Ghosh et al. (2015) in male inflorescences and jackfruits trees in India. Ghosh (1994) mentions that this disease caused R. stolonifer, is very common unrainy zones and can present in jackfruits in pre and post-harvest. Nelson (2005), reported that R. oryzae and R. artocarpi cause the same symptoms in jackfruits, causing losses from 15 to 32 %. This pathogen also causes infections in strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) in post-harvest (Nieto et al., 2011) and in field, causing losses from 50 to 90 % of ripe fruits in Taiwan, provoking similar symptoms to the ones reported in jackfruit inflorescences, however, the flowers remained asymptomatic (Lin et al., 2017). Latorre et al. (2002), reproduced the soft and aqueous rots in inoculated grapes, on lesions 48 hours after post-inoculation with R. stolonifer.

The isolated culture of R. stolonifer obtained from aphids, tested positive in a 70 and 40 % of male inflorescences, when being inoculated with and without wounds, respectively. The symptoms were observed three dpi, and caused total rot on the fifth dpi, the infection started with a humid area, with cottony white mycelium, which turned black and completely covering the inflorescence. The aphid of jackfruit in Nayarit corresponds to Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe), previously reported by Rodríguez et al., (2017). In India and Thailand, this insect has been reported to feed on new shoots of jackfruit, causing rolling on the leaves covered by black mold (Haq, 2006; APAARI, 2012). The importance of this aphid consists on its capacity to spread diseases, in citrus fruits, it is responsible for the spreading of the CTV (Silva et al., 2001; Patiño-Arellano et al., 2012).

Cunninghamella clavata, caused a soft rot in male inflorescences (Table 1), over which the circular white mycelium was developed (Figure 2), which grew evenly until entirely covering the inflorescences; to this day, this fungus has not been reported as a phytopathogen, which is why a relation between C. clavata and jackfruit inflorescences has not been reported, therefore, it is the first time it is reported as pathogenic for the male inflorescences of jackfruit in Nayarit, Mexico. In Brazil, it has been isolated from samples in semiarid soils without having more data (Alves et al., 2017). The genera Cunninghamella sp. includes species of medical importance such as C. bertholletiae, which causes sinusitis, pulmonary and endobronchial zygomicosis on patients with a weak immune system (cancer and diabetes mellitus, in biotechnological procedures), C. bainieri metabolizes xenobiotics, aromatic compounds and drugs and C. elegans oxidizes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, oil and degrades the fluoranthene in a PAH (Shiosaki et al., 2001).

Lasiodiplodia theobromae caused soft rot in both types of inflorescences (Table 1), from the inoculated area, grayish white mycelium entirely invading the inflorescences was developed (Figure 1, 2). In Taiwan, this pathogen has been reported to cause soft rot in jackfruits, the infection starts with yellowish stain which turns brown and finally gets a dark-brownish color and humid-looking with abundant sporulation of a dark-grayish tone (Dimocarpus longan L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.), causing rotting of rachis, raquilla, and flowers five and eight dpi, respectively; the inflorescences of mango turned brown with presence of abundant mycelium (Serrano-Díaz et al., 2013), while in longan, the inflorescences were mummified (Serrano-Díaz et al., 2014).

The macro and microscopic characteristics of the pathogenic fungi to jackfruit inflorescences were the following: Fusarium solani showed an even and continuous growth, it developed a slight pink mycelium, conidia (fialospore), variable hyalines slightly curved with pointy ends, in a canoe-shape and, ovoid microconidia or individual oblongs (Figure 3A). Aspergillus niger presented black mycelium with abundant sporulation, while on the back appeared a yellowish white tone; long conidiophores, flat and phialides covering the vesicle completely (Figure 3B). Aspergillus flavus presented green-yellowish velvety mycelium with abundant sporulation, while on the back a brown-reddish color was observed, wrinkled conidiophores of variable length with phialides in the apex covering the vesicle entirely (Figure 3C). Rhizopus stolonifer presented a fast-growing colony with coenocytic, dense, aerial, and cottony with a white color at the beginning, and then it turned dark gray, sporangiosphores without ramifying of a dark tone produced in stolons added to the substrate by means of the rhizoids and black spherical sporangia with columella (Figure 3D; Mass, 1998). Cunninghamella clavata presented a size-limited, white, pubescent-cottony, macrosyphoned, hyaline, coenocytic, ramified, colony with sporangia (uniesporado) and, round or ogival sporangiospores (Figure 3E). Lasiodiplodia theobromae presented an even growth, later turning dark gray and finally acquiring a black tone. Twenty days after incubation, it produces pycnidia conidiomata in stromas, semi-immerse and dispersed, from gray to black and pyriform. The unripe conidia did not present septum (amerospore), they were hyalines, cylindrical, and with a thick wall, while the ripe conidia presented one septum (didimospore), of a dark brown color and ellipsoidal ovoid with irregular longitudinal striations (Figure 3F). The morphological characteristics described by the pathogenic fungi to inflorescences of jackfruit in Nayarit, Mexico, agree with what Barnett & Hunter described (2006).


[Figure ID: f3] Figure 3.

Microscopic morphological characters of the pathogenic fungi of jackfruit inflorescences in Nayarit, A) Fusarium solani, B) Aspergillus niger, C) Aspergillus flavus, D) Rhizopus stolonifer, E) Cunninghamella clavata, F) Lasiodiplodia theobromae (mature and immature conidia).


According to their morphological characteristics and genomic sequence compared to other sequences reported and recorded in the GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank), the homology was obtained with: Fusarium solani 99 % (Acceso: KX379166.1), Aspergillus niger 99 % (Acceso: KY204007.1), Aspergillus flavus 96 % (Acceso: MF113270.1), Rhizopus stolonifer 92 % (Acceso: MF461022.1), Cunninghamella clavata 99 % (Acceso: JN205890.1) and Lasiodiplodia theobromae 99 % (KX462997.1).

Conclusion

Based on the molecular and morphological identification, aside from the pathogenicity tests, the fungi causing rot in female inflorescences of jack fruit in Nayarit, Mexico, were identified, which are: Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Lasiodiplodia theobromae; and in male inflorescences: Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger and Cunninghamella clavata; showing greater susceptibility to male inflorescences when these fungi attack. The aphid Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii is a vector of Rhizopus stolonifer among the male inflorescences. This paper offers the first report of Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flavus and Cunninghamella clavata as pathogens of inflorescences of jackfruit.


fn1Cite this paper: Medina-Tiznado, M. A., Luna-Esquivel, G., Cambero-Campos, J., Ramírez-Guerrero, L. G., Rios-Velasco, C. (2018). Causal agents of inflorescence rot of Artocarpus heterophyllus and association with Toxoptera aurantii in Nayarit, Mexico. Revista Bio Ciencias 5(nesp), e438. doi: https://doi.org/10.15741/revbio.05.nesp.e438

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Revista Bio Ciencias, Año 11, vol. 7,  Enero 2020. Sistema de Publicación Continua editada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”,  Col. Centro,  C.P.: 63000, Tepic, Nayarit, México. Teléfono: (01) 311 211 8800, ext. 8922. E-mail: revistabiociencias@gmail.com, revistabiociencias@yahoo.com.mx, http://revistabiociencias.uan.mx. Editor responsable: Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. No. de Reserva de derechos al uso exclusivo 04-2010-101509412600-203, ISSN 2007-3380, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional de Derechos de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este número Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. Secretaria de Investigación y Posgrado, edificio Centro Multidisciplinario de Investigación Científica (CEMIC) 03 de la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. La opinión expresada en los artículos firmados es responsabilidad del autor. Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de los contenidos e imágenes, siempre y cuando se cite la fuente y no sea con fines de lucro.

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