Seed oil Jatropha dioica Sesee as a biodiesel potencial resource

J. U. Pérez-Pérez1; B. Reyes-Trejo2*; D. Guerra-Ramírez2; J. A. Cuevas-Sánchez3

1. Postgrado en Ciencias en Horticultura. Departamento de Fitotecnia. Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Km. 38.5 Carretera México-Texcoco, C.P. 56230, Chapingo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México., Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo,

<state>Estado de México</state>
, Mexico , 2. Laboratorio de Productos Naturales, Área de Química, Departamento de Preparatoria Agrícola, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Km. 38.5 Carretera México-Texcoco, C.P. 56230, Chapingo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México., Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Departamento de Preparatoria Agrícola, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo,
<state>Estado de México</state>
, Mexico ,
3. Banco de Germoplasma, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Km. 38.5 Carretera México-Texcoco, C.P. 56230, Chapingo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México., Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Banco de Germoplasma, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo,
<state>Estado de México</state>
, Mexico

Correspondence: *. Corresponding Author: Reyes Trejo, Benito. Laboratorio de Productos Naturales, Área de Química Departamento de Preparatoria Agrícola, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Km. 38.5 Carretera México-Texcoco, C.P. 56230, Chapingo, Texcoco, Estado de México. Phone: +52(595) 952 1500 ext. 5760, E-mail: E-mail:


Abstract:

Jatropha dioica Seseé is a species of the Euphorbiaceae family, it belongs to the group of endemic species in Mexico that have not been studied and valued as a phytogenetic resource. Its seeds are rich in oil and its stems contain pharmacological and healing properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Jatropha dioica Seseé seed oil as a raw material in the production of biodiesel. Seeds of Jatropha dioica Seseé were subjected to extraction, by means of Soxhlet and maceration methods. The obtained oil was physico-chemically characterized and a reaction was made with methanol, in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyzer to obtain a mixture of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME), which was analyzed to evaluate its possible use as a biodiesel. The exhaustive extraction of Jatropha dioica Seseé seeds provided 55.8 % of oil by Soxhlet method, while 43.5 % of oil was extracted by maceration method. Crude oil acid (0.63 ± 0.03 mg KOH g-1) and saponification indexes (44.48 ± 1.27 mg KOH g-1) were considered to carry out biodiesel production by means of alkaline trans-esterification reaction. The analysis of FAME revealed the presence of a high content of linoleic acid (57.77 %) and oleic acid (23.86 %). According to the obtained results, the extraction of Jatropha dioica Seseé seed oil was recommended for its possible use as a biodiesel in the energy industry.

Received: 2018 April 18; Accepted: 2019 October 10

revbio. 2020 Jul 14; 7: e728
doi: 10.15741/revbio.07.e728

Keywords: Key words: Biofuel, biodiesel, Jatropha dioica, fatty acids methyl esters.

Introduction

The study of sources of renewable energies like biodiesel is currently a focus of interest for diverse public and private research centers (Pramanik, 2003; Bozbas, 2006). There is a global effort to develop new technologies for generating alternative and clean energies, including solar cells, aerogenerators, geothermic energy (Vera-Castillo et al., 2014) and biomass. Renewable energies are now an integral part of the sustainable development of the ecological environment, improving life quality and economic stability in the population. Worldwide energy demand will double in the next thirty years. China and Asia, which currently represent 30 % of the worldwide demand, will pass to 43 % in 2030. On the other side, the thirty two countries of OCDE led by United States of America, European Union and Japan will pass from 58 % to 47 % (Castro, 2011), therefore the energetic industry is focused on oleaginous species as the best option of raw materials for biodiesel production (Ganesh-Ram et al., 2008; Ye et al., 2013). However, in Mexico, the Law of Promotion and Development of Bioenergetics (Official Journal of the Federation, 2008), fosters bioenergetics production by means of agriculture and livestock activities, forestry, algae, biotechnological and enzymatic processes, without jeopardizing food security and sovereignty of the country. Species as canola (Brassica napus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), soy (Glycine max), oily palm (Elaeis guineensis) and pine nut (Jatropha curcas), have currently a great interest, those belonging to this last genus stand out for the quantity and composition of oils extracted from the seeds, in addition to physiological, agronomic, environmental and production characteristics (Sharma et al., 2013).

The use of biodiesel as fuel presents various advantages, such as: coming from renewable sources, safe for its use in internal combustion engines and adequate octane number (Bozbas, 2006). This fuel is obtained from oils or fats by means of a transesterification reaction, using alcohol in a catalytic environment. Transesterification consists in a consecutive number of irreversible reactions, where triglycerides are transformed in diglycerides, mono-glycerides and posteriorly in glycerol and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (Reyes-Trejo et al., 2014). However, it is important to analyze physico-chemical characteristics and saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids ratio (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) of biodiesel to determine how useful it is, as well as the possibility of making mixture with commercial diesel in order not to cause internal damages in engines. (Talebi et al., 2013) reported that a biodiesel with a high content of saturated fatty acids increases resistance of biodiesel to oxidation in warm climates, while a high content in unsaturated fatty acids improves its flow properties in cold climates, meaning that the applicability of the produced biodiesel mainly depends on climatic conditions in which the biodiesel will be used.

J. dioica belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, including around 199 species (The Plant List, 2019), of which 48 are endemic from Mexico (Steinmann, 2003); its origin is unknown up to now, however, molecular studies indicate that it is native-born from Mexico and Central America (Achten et al., 2009). J. dioica is a shrub with brown-reddish fleshy and flexible stems, it can reach up to 1.5 m height, its leaves measure from 2 to 4 cm in length with rounded tip and are presented as clusters in knots, its sap is colorless, but when it comes into contact with air, it turns into a reddish color, its flowers are pinkish and small. Its fruit (drupe) is globular and only contains a seed presenting a firm and compact pericarp. Leaves appear during the rainy season. J. dioica is commonly used in communities of northwestern Mexico, where its roots are used in infusions for hair loss treatment, eliminating scabies or in washings to alleviate infection of blows, wounds, spots (Wong-Paz, 2010) and skin cancer (Villareal et al., 1988). This species spread from northern Querétaro to Chihuahua, but is limited by the two Sierras Madres which divide the area, sharing an ecological environment with xerophytic scrublands. They have been found around 2,000 to 2,800 masl, in semi-warm climate, annual average temperature of 18 ˚C, minimal precipitations of 43 mm and maximal of 979 mm (Fresnedo-Ramírez, 2012). Although the important anthropocentric use of Jatropha dioica in rural localities and its use as a small-scale source, not enough studies have been currently reported on the oil content and physico-chemical profiles of the oil of the seed of this species originating from the state of Guanajuato.

Based on the previously told, the objective of this work was to bring useful data supporting the use of this phytogenetic source as a potential source of renewable energy.

Material and Methods

Vegetal material

J. dioica seeds, in a state of maturity and without physical damage were collected during the months of June and July of 2017 in the locality of Buenavistilla, Municipality of San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, Mexico, at an elevation of 2,100 m. The specimen was identified and deposited in the Herbario-Hortorio ¨Jorge Espinoza Salas¨ of the department of the Preparatoria Agrícola of the Autonomous University of Chapingo. Seeds were let dry in the sun, then cotyledons were obtained and stored at 4 °C for 24 h.

Morphological characterization of J. dioica seeds

A total of 30 seeds with pericarp were weighted in a digital weighting scale OHAUS CS200 (precision of 0.0001 g). Geometrical dimensions were determined as: length (L), width (W) and thickness (T) with a digital vernier TRUPER CALDI-6MP (precision 0.01 mm). In addition, statistical methods were used to analyze data of arithmetic diameter, geometrical diameter and sphericity of the seeds using the equations 1, 2 and 3:

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Obtaining and characterizing J. dioica oil

J. dioica seeds (previously ground, 50 g) were packaged in filter paper cartridges and were submitted to extraction by using 150 mL of hexane by Soxhlet method for 18 h and by maceration method for 48 h. Oil and hexane mixture, previously dried with 20 g of anhydrous Na2SO4, was vacuum evaporated in a rotary evaporator brand Buchi model R-210 at a temperature of 50 °C. The process was performed in triplicate and oil yield was determined. Physico-chemical properties which was determined in oil were: viscosity, dynamic and kinematic (Viscometer Anton Parr SVM 3000) and acid and saponification indexes (AOAC, 1990) and gross heating value was determined in a calorimeter brand Anton Parr model 6400.

Preparation and characterization of Biodiesel and mixtures of biodiesel-diesel

For obtaining biodiesel, firstly, a mixture of methanol with potassium hydroxide was prepared at a concentration of 0.028 g L-1. J. dioica oil was added to this mixture in a proportion of 0.25:1 (v/p). The mixture was shaken and heated under reflux with methanol for 1 h. Once passed this time, it was transferred to a separation funnel and was let rest for 12 h, until observing two consistent phases in biodiesel and glycerin. Biodiesel (superior phase) was treated with citric acid at 0.1 % (two washings in proportion 1:1), after it was washed with hot water, finally it was dried with 20 g of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored protected from the light at 4 °C until analysis. Fatty acids composition was determined by gas chromatography in an Agilent 6890 chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and an AT-FAME column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 mm). Initial temperature of the oven was 170 °C (1 min), ramp 10 °C min-1, final temperature 240 °C, injector and detector temperature 260 °C. Helium was used as a transporting gas, at a flow velocity of 1.8 mL min-1. A mixture of FAME was used as a standard and retention times were used for the detection of the picks of samples. Fatty acids were estimated as the percentage of the total area of the picks of FAME (Figure 1).


[Figure ID: f1] Figure 1.

Chromatogram from gas chromatography analysis of J. dioica seeds oil.


Mixtures of biodiesel-diesel called B05, B10, B20, B30, B40 and B100 were prepared, where the number indicates the percentage of biodiesel in the mixture. Kinematic and dynamic viscosities and biodiesel densities and of each mixture were measured at atmospheric pressure, at 20 and 40 °C in an Anton Parr rotational Viscometer-densimeter Stabinger SVM 3000. Measurements of gross heating values of biodiesel and mixtures B10, B20, B30, B40 and B50 were performed in a calorimeter brand Anton Parr model 6 400, using approximatively 0.5 g of sample.

Statistical analysis

Results were expressed as means ± standard deviation of the analysis, tests were performed in triplicate.

Results and Discussion

Morphological characterization of J. dioica seeds

J. dioica seeds were composed by a drupe, with a firm dark brown pericarp. Inside, a white seed could be found, which was divided into two cotyledons with an embryo in the middle. To improve the exploitation for obtaining biodiesel from seeds oil, it was necessary to establish physical (arithmetic diameter, geometrical diameter and sphericity), mechanical and chemical variables, which were useful for a better design and operation of the equipment, as well as for processes of oil extraction (Betancur-Prisco et al., 2014). Physical characteristics of J. dioica seeds were presented in Table 1. Measures as length, width and thickness of seeds were significantly similar, resembling a sphere. In addition, the obtained value of sphericity of 91.82 % indicated a more spherical shape compared with J. curcas.

Table 1.

Physical characteristicsa of Jatropha dioica seeds


Parameter Mean
Length (mm) 11.75 ± 1.65
Width (mm) 10.32 ± 1.45
Thickness (mm) 10.21 ± 1.19
Weight (g) 1.30 ± 0.05
Arithmetic diameter (mm) 10.76 ± 1.33
Geometric diameter (mm) 10.66 ± 1.50
Sphericity % 91.82 ± 0.04
a.

TFN1Mean of 30 seeds.


Content and characterization of oil and biodiesel of J. dioica seeds

The average yield of the extraction of J. dioica seed oil by Soxhlet method was of 55.8 ± 1.2 % and by maceration of 43.5 ± 0.7 %. Some physico-chemical parameters of crude oil and biodiesel obtained from J. dioica seeds were shown in Table 2. Extracted oil content was observed to be similar to other oleaginous crops; as castor oil plant, 64.84 % (Goytia-Jiménez et al., 2010), Soy bean 35.5 % (Mosquera-Artamonov et al., 2016) and even similar to other species from Jatropha genus, 44.4 % and 56.5 % (Pradhan et al., 2012; Prasad et al., 2012).

Table 2.

Physicochemical properties of J. dioica seed oil.


Property Oil Biodiesel
Acid index (mg KOH g-1) 0.63 ± 0.03 -
Saponification index (mg KOH g-1) 44.48 ± 1.27 -
Density at 20˚C (g cm-3) 0.8966 0.8843
Viscosity at 40˚C (mm2 s-1) 16.915 4.5763
Gross heating value (MJ kg-1) 37.27 38.09

The high content of extracted oil from the seed indicated that it is a potentially useful source to be transformed in biofuel. However, this could be related to the origin and state of physiological maturity. In this case, seeds obtained after natural dehiscence of the fruits of this plant were used, presenting a dark brown pericarp, corresponding to approximatively 60 days of maturity.

The determination of gross heating value of a substance allows to estimate the quantity of energy released when it is burnt (Knothe, 2010). Gross heating values obtained in crude oil and biodiesel presented, in both cases, quantities inferior to 39.500 MJ kg-1, the established limit by International Standard ASTM D240, Method of standard test for gross heating value in hydrocarbons, by means of a calorimetric bomb for the use of biodiesel; so that both the crude oil and biodiesel obtained in this work can be considered suitable for their use in internal combustion engines.

The acid index allows to determine the percentage of fatty acids in an oil sample, in addition to evaluating whether the transesterification reaction will be satisfactorily performed. With the saponification index, an estimation of the length of fatty acid chains was obtained (Nielsen, 2010), in addition, it indicated whether the oil was potentially useful for the elaboration of liquid soaps, as well as in the shampoo industry (Akbar et al., 2009).

The obtained acid index (0.63 mg KOH g-1 ± 0.03) was slightly higher than the established limit in European Union Standard EN 14214 for biodiesel production (0.0-0.5 mg KOH g-1). Results of saponification corresponded to those obtained in other studies in species of Jatropha genus (Adebowale et al., 2006), suggesting that the oil was potentially useful for biodiesel elaboration or for its direct use as a biofuel.

Kinematic viscosity is defined as the resistance of a fluid to movement, this characteristic has different behavior according to the molecular weight of the oil and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (Akbar et al., 2009). This characteristic has a great impact on engine, causing high dragging in the injection pump, with high fuel pressures and volumes, especially operating at low temperatures (Pinzi et al., 2009).

Comparison of Standards (EN 1424) of diesel and mixtures of biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) for properties of kinematic viscosity and density of mixtures prepared with biodiesel-diesel (B05, B10, B20, B30, B40 and B100) of Jatropha dioica. were shown in Table 3.

Table 3.

Biodiesel properties of J. dioica and biodiesel-diesel mixtures compared to biodiesel Standards.


Property EN 1424 ASTM
D6751
B100 B40 B30 B20 B10 B05 Normalized
Analytical method
Density at 15˚C 860-900 888.8 849.0 843.8 836.2 828.0 826.0 EN-ISO 3675
(Kg m-3)* EN-ISO 12185
Viscosity at 40˚C 3.5-5.0 1.9-6.0 4.6 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 EN-ISO 3104
(mm2 s-1)** ASTM-D-445

TFN2*Only pure biodiesel (B100) achieves European Standard EN 14214.

TFN3**All mixtures achieve American Standard in viscosity ASTM D6751.


Results indicated that kinematic viscosity not lineally decreases, while temperature increases. High viscosities in fuels do not favor a good performance in engines, therefore specific characteristics are wanted, which do not affect the flow and fuel atomization (Akbar et al., 2009). Kinematic viscosity of J. dioica decreases when increasing temperature from 20 ˚C to 90 ˚C (7.38 to 2.07 mm2 s-1). At 40 °C, biodiesel (B100; 4.57 mm2 s-1) was observed to cover requirements for EN 14214 Standard (3.5-5.0 mm2 s-1). In addition, mixtures B05, B10, B20, B30 and B40 of biodiesel-diesel are suitable for its use according to Standards established in ASTM D 6751-09 Standard (1.9-6.0 mm2 s-1). Data were close to those obtained by Prasad et al., (2012) who reported 5.14 mm2 s-1. The density of biodiesel-diesel mixtures had a lineal behaviour, corresponding every time more when increasing progressively diesel mixture and temperature up to 70 ˚C. Gunstone (2004) reported that the density of an oil decreases according to its molecular weight, but increases according to unsaturated fatty acids content. The density at 15 ˚C of biodiesel obtained from J. dioica (888.8 kg m-3) achieved Standards established in EN 14214 Standard (860-900 kg m-3) for biodiesel, making easier the way of managing different mixtures of biodiesel-diesel.

Fatty acids profile of J. dioica

The main percentages obtained in the analysis of gas chromatography and its comparison with others oleaginous species were observed in Table 4. The chromatogram used for obtaining data from the fatty acids composition by means of corresponding FAME retention time was shown in Figure 1.

Table 4.

Fatty acid composition (%) of J. dioica and other natural sources.


Fatty acid Molecular formula Structure Percentage %
Jatropha dioica Jatropha curcasa Elaeis guineesisb
Palmitic C16H32O2 C16:0 9.30 14.2 44
Estearic C18H36O2 C18:0 6.10 7.0 4.5
Palmitoleic C16H30O2 C16:1 0.50 0.7
Oleic C18H34O2 C18:1 23.86 44.7 39
Linoleic C18H32O2 C18:2 57.80 32.8 10.1
Linolenic C18H30O2 C18:3 0.20 0.2
Saturated - - 15.40 21.6 48.5
Monounsaturated - - 24.36 45.4 39
Polyunsaturated - - 60.00 33.0 10.1

The main fatty acids in J. dioica seeds were the polyunsaturated ones (60 %) and superior to saturated (15.4 %) and monounsaturated (24.36 %), in these last ones, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids were found. These data were comparable to those determined in J. curcas by some other researchers (Akbar et al., 2009; Pradhan et al., 2012). Palmitoleic, stearic and linolenic acids were present in small quantities. J. dioica contained a higher percentage of linoleic acid (57.80 %) regarding J. curcas (32.8 %), both Jatrophas were constituted by a lower quantity of palmitic acid regarding those of oil palm (Elaeis guineesis) (Syamsuddin et al., 2016).

At an industrial scale, a disadvantage of J. dioica biodiesel is that it contained high polyunsaturated fatty acids levels (linoleic acid 57.80 %), which have negative effects when decreasing its stability and reducing cetane number (Pinzi et al., 2009). In addition to be susceptible to the incidence of undesirable odors and flavors caused by the formation of aldehydes and alcohols caused by peroxides and hydroperoxides. However, an advantage is that it presented fluidity at low temperatures for its low content in saturated fatty acids (Bahandur et al., 2013) as palmitic (9.31 %) and stearic (6.09 %) acids. Therefore, the use of biodiesel derived from oils of this species is potentially useful as a renewable energy source in cold climates.

Conclusions

The main fatty acids in J. dioica seed oil were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. Kinematic viscosity and density of the obtained biodiesel (B100) presented acceptable characteristics considering EN 14214 standards, while biodiesel-diesel mixtures were achieving ASTM D6751 standard for the kinematic viscosity parameter.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids content was a limiting factor for its use in internal combustion engines, except in cold climates. However, crude oil could be used in reverse combustion engines to produce electricity at small scale.


fn1Cite this paper: Pérez-Pérez, J. U., Reyes-Trejo, B., Guerra-Ramírez, D., Cuevas-Sánchez, J. A. (2020). Seed oil Jatropha dioica Seseé as a biodiesel potencial resource. Revista Bio Ciencias 7, e728. doi: https://doi.org/10.15741/revbio.07.e728

Acknowledgements

Authors thank funding of the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT), as well as the Laboratory of Natural Products of the Autonomous University of Chapingo for the support and recommendations realized during the experimental phase.

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Revista Bio Ciencias, Año 10, vol. 6,  Enero 2019. Sistema de Publicación Continua editada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”,  Col. Centro,  C.P.: 63000, Tepic, Nayarit, México. Teléfono: (01) 311 211 8800, ext. 8922. E-mail: revistabiociencias@gmail.com, revistabiociencias@yahoo.com.mx, http://revistabiociencias.uan.mx. Editor responsable: Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. No. de Reserva de derechos al uso exclusivo 04-2010-101509412600-203, ISSN 2007-3380, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional de Derechos de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este número Lic. Brenda Isela Romero Mosqueda y Lic. Elvira Orlanda Yañez Armenta. Secretaria de Investigación y Posgrado, edificio Centro Multidisciplinario de Investigación Científica (CEMIC) 03 de la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. La opinión expresada en los artículos firmados es responsabilidad del autor. Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de los contenidos e imágenes, siempre y cuando se cite la fuente y no sea con fines de lucro.

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